This heavily researched text is aligned with recent work on response to intervention (RtI). It outlines seven factors that influence English language learner (ELL) learning in schools and shows educators how to describe the nature of a learning difficulty (before diagnosing it as a learning disability) and devise a continuum of services.
The foundational principle of this guide is that support is more effective if it is part of a continuum that is integrated into the student's everyday school life rather than trying to determine whether academic challenges faced by an ELL stem from a second-language development issue or a long-term disability. To this end, an extensive information-gathering system is used to create interventions, both specific and systemic. The recommended interventions emerge from a combination of knowledge of second-language learning acquisition and special education research and practice. To ensure this combined approach and maintain a broad perspective, the text explains how to create ECOS (Ensuring a Continuum of Services) teams made up of teachers from different disciplines, administrators, and specialists.
The book’s special features, including checklists, rating scales, evaluation forms, and discussion questions, help schools begin offering a continuum of services for ELLs who are having academic difficulties.